Haizhou Wuda-gongdiao Music 海州五大宫调

Time: 2006
Category: Folk Music
Region: Jiangsu province
Ref. No.: Ⅱ-41
Nominating unit [s]: Lianyungang city, Jiangsu province
Haizhou is the ancient name of Lianyungang city, Jiangsu province. The Haizhou wuda-gongdiao music, popular in Lianyungang city and neighboring areas, is an art form that joins Qupai (a kind of tune) to perform, taking Ruanping, Dieluo, Lidiao, Nandiao, Boyang as basic tones.
Haizhou people have long maintained the custom of singing local ditties. After the period of Emperor Jiajing and Emperor Longqing in the Ming dynasty, the Haizhou wuda-gongdiao music came into being and gradually became mature, widely spreading with the development of the salt industry and river transportation. Being located in the jointing area between Jiangsu province and Shandong province and the confluence place of Yangtze-Huai dialects and northern dialect, Haizhou is the birth place of ditties of various tunes from both the south and the north. These songs feature of both integrity and complexity. As a result of historic reasons like isolated transportation, folk music here is rarely influenced by other art forms, therefore various forms of Qupai have managed to stay intact and have been handed down from generation to generation.
Haizhou wuda-gongdiao music boasts a long history and lasting appeal. Some ditties of Ming dynasty like Jishengcao (parasites on other plants), Shanpoyang (sheep on the hillside) and Dazaogan (pole for beating down the dates) are still heard even today; Matoudiao (horse head tune) which has almost been lost in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces can still be found here in Haizhou, and the lines of it are basically the same as the ones in the record in Baixue Yiyin (Snowy Tunes); some set pieces of music that are difficult to sing are still sung by the Haizhou people. After 1980, Haizhou wuda-gongdiao music was on the edge of disappearing because of the changes in social environment. It is valuable heritage of folk songs that were first sung in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and its exploration and protection are of great importance to studies of Ming and Qing ditties due to the historical features of the music.
赵绍康 刘长兰
Zhao Shaokang Liu Changlan

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