Four big “tea schools” of Chinese teahouse 中国茶馆四大“茶门”

中国人上茶馆喝茶可谓历史悠久,而四大“茶门”的说法就是对那些茶馆风气最盛的城市的简称。如果现在要在中国找出茶楼文化最为丰盛的城市,那东有杭州,西有成都,南有潮汕,北有北京。类似太极茶道、老舍茶馆、圣陶沙、五福茶艺馆等等大品牌,都出自这些“茶气”极盛的城市里。
There is a long history for Chinese to go to teahouse to drink tea while the saying of four big “tea schools” is the short title for cities wher teahouse prevails. If one needs to find the cities wher the richest teahouse culture is, there will be Hangzhou in the east, Chengdu in the west, Chaoshan in the south and Beijing in the north. The big brands such as Taiji Tea Ceremony, Lao She Teahouse, Shengtaosha and Wufu Teahouse are all from these cities wher “tea flavor” prevails.
杭州的茶,喝的是精致文化。“青梁湖山供慧眼,藤索茗话契禅心”,西湖边上的青藤茶馆,已成为杭州上千家茶馆的代表。坐在西子湖畔,让身穿青灰色长袍的“太极茶道”茶师沏好一壶茶,河坊街的吆喝声与店小二手上的长嘴壶一起一落相呼应,此时此景,茶不醉人人自醉。
Drinking tea in Hangzhou is to experience the exquisite culture there. “Green ridge and Lake Mountain deepen in insight, tea chatting in rattans matching a meditative mind”, Qingteng Teahouse near the West Lake has been the representative of thousands of teahouses in Hangzhou. Sitting by the West Lake, having a good pot of tea that is made from a“Taiji Tea Ceromony”, seeing a tea maker dressing in a steel gray robe, hearing the shouts from Hefang Street and seeing ups and downs of the long-necked kettle from the waiters, it is not the tea anymore that intoxicates but the surrounding that makes the drinker feel high.
成都的茶,喝的是平民文化。成都人享受生活的较真劲,比起扬州人有过之而无不及。成都人喝茶,那才叫真正的“龙门阵、大碗茶”,不讲究茶的品质,不讲究喝茶的环境。大树荫处,凉棚底下,随随便便摆上桌凳,就可以喝上茶,追求的是喝茶之外的生活状态。唯独用长嘴茶壶倒茶的技法,样式繁多,有很多个门派,“峨嵋”、“青城”等等,一直也是难分高下的。
Drinking tea in Chengdu is to experience the civilian culture. The seriousness of enjoying life for Chengdu people goes farther than that of Yangzhou people. The way that Chengdu people drink tea can really be called “leisure talk and stall tea”, with no requirements on the tea quality and the environment. Drinking tea can be as easy as putting up a table and chairs under the shadow of a tree. It is the life style that they pursue. only the technique of pouring tea by long-necked kettle has various styles and abundant schools, with “Emei” and “Qingcheng”, etc. in neck-to-neck position.
潮汕的茶,喝的是茶道文化。潮汕“功夫茶”,名扬海内外。功夫茶从选茶、泡茶功夫到茶具,都是十分考究的。用水取自山泉,榄核为炭火,用小扇煮开的水甘甜醇美,味道醇正。茶叶以乌龙、铁观音等为上乘。
Drinking tea in Chaoshan is to experience the tea ceremony culture. “kungfu tea” in Chaoshan is famous both at home and abroad, which is rather detailed process from tea selecing, tea-making technique to tea ware. The tea tastes good because they use sweet and pure water from mountain spring which is boiled by charcoal fire with olive core accompanied by small fan. The best tea leaves should be Oolong and Tie Guanyin, etc.
北京的茶,喝的是贵气文化。皇城根下,任何东西都沾染着大气,有股富贵含在里头。老舍茶馆泡了十多年的茶汤,与其他省份的茶楼相比,更显得雍容华贵。大红的灯笼挂成串,舞台上锣鼓震天响,京剧唱罢相声接台,直来直往。在这里喝茶,服务员都好为人师,说起茶文化是如数家珍:喝绿茶要用玻璃杯、喝花茶要用盖碗、喝铁观音要用功夫茶具,丝毫含糊不得。作为茶客,也乐得听一番妙趣横生的讲解。喝茶能喝出各地的文化来,手中的一杯茶,冲泡起来的都是当地的民俗民风。
Drinking tea in Beijing is to experience the noble culture. At the foot of capital, everything has a touch of generous, rich and honor. The tea soup in Laoshe Teahouse which has made tea for more than decades appears to be more elegant and poised compared with the teahouses in other provinces. Red lanterns are hung in strings and the sound of gongs and drums on the stage is extremely loud. Comic dialogue is put on the stage just after Beijing opera, non-stop. Waiters are fond of teaching others here; they know tea culture just like the back of their hands: glass cup for green tea, covered bowl for scented tea and Kungfu tea ware for Tie Guanyin, those cannot be mixed up at all. Tea drinking guests are also happy to hear the witty and humorous explanations. Cultures from different places can be experienced through drinking different tea, while that cup of tea in your hand is brewed by the local folk customs.
据有关部门统计,目前全国有十二万五千多家茶馆,从业人数达到二百五十多万人,已然成为中国休闲文化产业的一支生力军。茶馆业对于各地国民经济发展和精神文化生活的丰富多彩作出了积极的贡献。
According to statistics of relevant departments, there are over 125,000 teahouses nationwide at present with more than 2,500,000 employees, which have been a fresh addition to the leisure and cultural industries in China. Teahouse industry has made positive contributions to the development of national economy as well as rich and spiritual and cultural life in various regions.

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