Guangdong Embroidery (Guangzhou Style and Chaozhou Style) 粤绣(广绣、潮绣)

时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间美术
Category: Folk Art
地区:广东
Region: Guangdong Province
编号:Ⅶ-20
Ref. No.: VII-20
申报地区或单位:广东省广州市、潮州市
Nominating unit[s]:
Guangzhou city,Guangdong Province
Chaozhou city,Guangdong Province
粤绣是流传于广州及其古属地南海、番禺、顺德等地的民间刺绣工艺,至今已有一千多年的历史。唐代苏颚《杜阳杂编》中就已有南海少女卢眉娘“工巧无比,能于尺绢绣《法华经》七卷”的记载。
As a folk embroidery style, Guangdong embroidery prevails across Guangzhou and its annexed territories in ancient times such as Nanhai, Panyu and Shunde, and has a history of more than 1000 years. It’s recorded in Duyang Miscellany (or Du Yang Za Bian) written by Su E in the Tang Dynasty that Lu Meiniang, a maid in Nanhai, was “so skillful that she could embroider Lotus Sutra in seven volumes on a tiny piece of one-chi (1/3 meter) silk fabric”.
粤绣技艺注意结合材料形质,有真丝绒绣、金银线绣、线绣和珠绣四大类。真丝绒绣以蚕丝为绣材,表现力强,是历史最为悠久、技艺传承最为完整的粤绣品种;金银线绣的针法独具特色,有平绣、编绣、绕绣、凸绣、垫绣、贴花绣、织锦等七大类六十多种;珠绣属于粤绣的新品种,最近几十年才由粤绣艺人开发应用。
Guangdong embroidery has formed its distinct style by taking advantage of shapes and texture of materials, and falls into four categories, i.e., silk embroidery, cannetille embroidery, thread embroidery and bead embroidery. Silk embroidery is made from natural silk, and it is a style which is very expressive, enjoys the longest history and retains a most complete technique among fellow embroideries. The needling technique of cannetille embroidery is quite unique, comprising over 60 types in 7 categories such as flat embroidery, knitting embroidery, winding embroidery, convex embroidery, padding embroidery, applique embroidery and brocade. And bead embroidery is a new type of Guangdong embroidery which is developed and applied by handicraftsmen of the craft in the last several decades.
粤绣在广东有着悠久的历史,潮绣在唐代就已出现于广东潮州地区,流传至明代已形成风格。它以龙凤、花卉、飞禽走兽、水族人物为题材,成品多充作日常用品、祭祀用品、欣赏用品、戏服装饰品等。其绣法可分为绣、垫、贴、拼、缀五种,针法有六角三叠踏针锦、垫棉过金针、双丁鳞、垫绣菊花畔鳞等两百多种。许多作品都综合运用了不同的绣法和针法,并有所创新,如潮绣代表作《九龙屏风》就运用了五大绣法,其中潮绣独有的钉金垫浮绣法使龙的形象栩栩如生。
Guangdong embroidery with a quite long history was originated in Guangdong Province. Chaozhou style made its debut in Chaozhou as early as the Tang Dynasty, and took a distinct form by the Ming Dynasty. Dragons, phoenixes, flowers, fowls and beasts, water life and human are the themes of Chaozhou embroidery, and the finished pieces were mainly used as daily necessities, sacrificial offerings, artistic works, and costume decorations. Its embroidery techniques can be divided into five kinds: embroidering, padding, appliquing, splicing and stitching. And, the needling techniques comprise over 200 types, including, Liujiao Sandie Tazhenjin, Dianmian Guojinzhen, Shuangdinglin, Dianxiu Juhuapanlin. The embroidery and needling techniques were creatively applied in many embroidery works, for example, the masterpiece of Chaozhou embroidery, Screen of Nine Dragons, have employed five embroidery techniques, and the Dingjin Dianfu embroidery unique to Chaozhou embroidery makes those dragons taking on a strikingly vivid look.
粤绣工艺自成一家,它针法多变,针步均匀,能巧妙运用针法丝理表现物像的肌理。粤绣题材广泛,色彩丰富,注重光和影的和谐运用,同时还能做到“工”为“艺”用,对绣品的艺术效果十分重视。
Guangdong embroidery distinguishes itself from other embroidery styles by varied needling techniques and even stitches. It can display textures of objects through various needling techniques. With a wide range of subjects and rich colors, Guangdong embroidery values the harmonious application of light and shadow and attaches great importance to the artistic effect of embroideries by using tools skillfully for art’s sake.
粤绣中凝聚着历代艺人的天才与智慧,从艺术风格到创作思维都充满了岭南特色,其成长历程与岭南文化发展的轨迹紧密叠合在一起。黄洪、许练成、余德、黄妹、陈荷影等都是具有影响力的粤绣传承人。现在随着老艺人的逝世,一些粤绣绝活已经逐渐失传,粤绣惟一的工艺大师陈少芳女士也已年近七十,粤绣迫切需要年轻的传承人。在社会经济不断发展、科学技术迅猛进步的今天,依靠手工技艺出奇制胜的粤绣受到机绣、电脑绣的严重冲击,市场萎缩,生存困难,迫切需要扶持和保护。
Guangdong embroidery is a crystallization of intellect and wisdom of craftsmen generation after generation. It is imbued with local features in artistic style and creativity since its development experiences were closely linked with the development path of Lingnan Culture. The well-known persons having good command of the craft include Huang Hong, Xu Liancheng, Yu De, Huang Mei, and Chen Heying. As worthy craftsmen passed away, some unique techniques of Guangdong embroidery have been getting now gradually lost. Ms. Chen Shaofang, the only living master of the craft, is approaching her 70s. Therefore, younger people are urgently needed to step into her shoes. Nowadays, with the continuous development of society and economy and rapid progress of science and technology, Guangdong embroidery, which relies on manual techniques to outflank the competitors, is severely dismayed by machine embroidery and computer embroidery. As a result, its market share is shrinking and it’s difficult for it to survive. In this sense, support and protection are in urgent need.

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