Hunan Embroidery 湘绣

时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间美术
Category: Folk Art
地区:湖南
Region: Hunan Province
编号:Ⅶ-19
Ref. No.: VII-19
申报地区或单位:湖南省长沙市
Nominating unit[s]: Changsha city, Hunan Province
湘绣的传统产区,主要分布在长沙市及其所辖的长沙县、望城县、开福区的数十个乡镇。解放后,在原有绣庄的基础上,组建了国营红星湘绣厂、湖南省湘绣厂、长沙市湘绣总厂(已改制)、长沙县湘绣厂(已破产)、望城县湘绣厂(已破产),鼎盛时期从业人员近10万。1979年省厂改为湖南省湘绣研究所,1998年湖南省人民政府拨款780万元建立了湖南省湘绣博物馆。1986年成立长沙市沙坪湘绣厂(民营),2003年中外合资修建了湖南星沙湘绣城。
Hunan embroidery (or Xiang embroidery) is traditionally produced in Changsha City and dozens of counties and towns under its governance such as Changsha County, Wangcheng County and Kaifu District. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, state-run embroidery firms like Red Star Xiang Embroidery Factory, Hunan Xiang Embroidery Factory, Changsha Xiang Embroidery General Factory (restructured), Changsha County Xiang Embroidery Factory (closed down) and Wangcheng County Xiang Embroidery Factory (closed down) were established based on pre-existed embroidery workshops, employing nearly 100,000 workers in their heyday. In 1979, Hunan Xiang Embroidery Factory was transformed into the Hunan Embroidery Research Institute. In 1998, the Hunan Xiang Embroidery Museum was founded with the 7.8 million yuan fund from Hunan Provincial People’s Government. In 1986, Changsha Shaping Xiang Embroidery Factory (privately-owned) was incorporated. In 2003, Hunan Xingsha Xiang Embroidery Town was established on a joint venture basis.
湘绣近百年来被世人普遍认为是中国四大名绣之一,1972年长沙马王堆一号汉墓出土的“深褐色菱纹信期绣”、“黄绢地长寿纹绣”等大量刺绣残片证明湖南刺绣已有两千多年的历史。湘绣在清代后期形成了具有独特风格的刺绣体系。清末,湘绣艺人李仪徽(1854-1928)首创掺针绣法;胡莲仙于1898年在长沙市司门口开设了第一家湘绣“吴彩霞绣庄”,掺针绣法通过胡莲仙传教徒弟而得以推广。掺针绣法能表现物像的浓淡阴阳、色阶渐变、色调混合,再与极为精细的劈丝技术相结合,使文人绘画的精神得以充分展现。清末民初,湘绣艺人廖家惠绣制《吴佩孚母亲像》(现藏上海博物馆);“奉安大典”中,孙中山先生灵柩覆盖的是湘绣棺罩(现藏台北故宫博物院);1933年长沙锦华丽绣庄刺绣的《罗斯福总统绣像》(现藏美国亚特兰大市小白宫博物馆),在美国芝加哥百年进步博览会上展出,引起轰动,使湘绣扬名国外。这一时期,湘绣技艺均已达到相当高度。解放后,湘绣名老艺人余振辉(1913-1984)发明和完善了毛针法,使湘绣表现的狮、虎栩栩如生,成为中国四大名绣中独有的著名针法。通过数代艺人的传承、发展,湘绣技艺现已形成5大类72种完整的针法体系,为完美地表现文人绘画和现代摄影作品奠定了良好的基础。双面全异绣使湘绣的表现形式和技艺水平达到了惊人的高度,国人誉为“超级绣品”,外国友人称为“魔术般的艺术”。
For nearly a century, Hunan embroidery has been thought of as one of the four great embroidery styles in China. Remains of embroidered garments, such as Dark Brown Xinqi Embroidery with Diamond Patterns and Yellow Silk Embroidery with Longevity Patterns unearthed from Mawangdui No.1 Tomb of the Han Dynasty in Changsha in 1972, are the best evidence of Hunan embroidery’s existence over two thousand years ago. In the late Qing Dynasty, the embroidery system unique to Hunan embroidery was developed. Also around this period, Li Yihui (1854-1928), an artisan of Hunan embroidery, initiated the elaborate stitching; Hu Lianxian opened the first Hunan embroidery store “Wu Caixia Embroidery Store” in Simenkou in Changsha and the elaborate stitching was popularized thanks to her apprentices. Elaborate stitching can show both the light & shade and the two opposing principles in nature. It also shows gradients in color, as well as mixing subjects. This technique, used in combination with fine splitting technique, gives full play to the artistic spirit of the literati painting. During the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China, the artisan of Hunan embroidery Liao Jiahui embroidered her work titled Portrait of The Mother of Wu Peifu which is now displayed in the Shanghai Museum; in Feng An Grand Ceremony, the cover for Mr. Sun Yat-sen’s coffin was made of Hunan embroidery, which can now be seen in Taipei’s National Palace Museum; the artwork The Portrait of President Roosevelt was embroidered by Changsha Jinhuali Embroidery Store in 1933 and now is shown in the Little White House in Atlanta of the United States. It was exhibited in the World Exposition Centennial Celebration in Chicago and caused a sensation, earning a good reputation for Hunan embroidery abroad. At that point, the techniques of Hunan embroidery had reached a peak. After the founding of PR China, Yu Zhenhui (1913-1984), a famous experienced artisan of Hunan embroidery, invented and perfected uneven stitching, through which the subjects in the embroidery, like lions and tigers, became lifelike. Thanks to his work, the uneven stitching became a famous needling technique unique to the four great embroidery styles of China. Through the inheritance and evolution of artisans over the generations, a complete needling technique system comprising 72 varieties in 5 categories in Hunan embroidery was developed, laying a good foundation for manifesting literati paintings and modern photographs. Along with the double-sided embroidery with varied colors and patterns, Hunan embroidery has reached a surprisingly new height in terms of manifestation and craftsmanship, and was honored as a “Superb Artwork of Embroidery” at home and “Magic Artwork” abroad.
改革开放以来,国务院先后授予的湘绣中国工艺美术大师有李凯云、杨应修、黄粹峰、刘爱云、周金秀五位。湘绣狮、虎等题材的作品现藏中国工艺美术馆,成为国家级珍品(国宝)。湘绣艺人曾多次受国家委派,到国外表演,大量湘绣作品作为国家礼品馈赠国际机场和友人,传播了中华文化,增进了国际友谊;2005年,我国“神六”太空之旅,搭载了湘绣作品(长沙沙坪湘绣厂绣制);2005年10月,在江苏省木椟举办的“中国四大名绣展评”中,惟有湘绣《长寿鸟》(湖南星沙湘绣城绣制)获一等奖;2005年11月,由中国工艺美术协会在杭州举办的“中国工艺美术大师作品暨精品展”中,湘绣《安南绣像》(长沙绣花园绣制)获得刺绣类惟一金奖。
Since the reform and opening up of China, the State Council has successively granted Li Kaiyun, Yang Yingxiu, Huang Cuifeng, Liu Aiyun and Zhou Jinxiu the title of Chinese Arts & Crafts Master of Hunan embroidery. Hunan embroidery pieces with subjects like lions and tigers are collected in China National Arts & Crafts Museum as national treasures. A great number of artisans have been sent abroad by the Chinese government to give performances, and a large amount of Hunan embroidery pieces were presented to international airports and foreign friends as national gifts, promoting the diffusion of traditional Chinese culture and international friendship. In 2005, Shenzhou VI carried the artworks of Hunan embroidery (made by Changsha Shaping Hunan embroidery Factory) to outer space. In October 2005, at the Exhibition of Four Great Embroidery Styles in China held in Mudu Town of Jiangsu Province, a piece of artwork of Hunan embroidery entitled Long-life Bird (made by Hunan Xing Sha Hunan embroidery Town) was the only one to win the first prize. In November 2005, at the Exhibition of Arts and Fine Works of Chinese Arts and Crafts Masters held by China Arts-Crafts Association in Hangzhou, a Hunan embroidery piece, Portrait of Annan (made by Changsha Embroidery Garden), was the only one that won the golden medal among all of the embroidery works.
近年来,由于外来文化的冲击、市场经济的迅速发展、农村大量劳动力的转移,使源于民间手工技艺的传统湘绣存在传承人的匮乏,部分优秀的手工技艺趋于失传,为了保护、发展湘绣传统技艺,长沙市人民政府正积极采取有效务实的措施,逐步加大保护力度,使湖湘人民千百年来创立的湘绣品牌得以传承和发展。
In recent years, owing to the impact of foreign cultures, rapid development of the market economy and large-scale emigration of rural labors, the successors to the Hunan embroidery, which was originated from folk craftsmanship, have fallen short, and some excellent craftsmanship is very likely to become extinct. To protect and develop the craft, the Changsha People’s Government has gradually strengthened the efforts to protect the craft by adopting effective and pragmatic measures, so as to ensure the inheritance and development of the craft, a brand created by Hunan people in the course of thousands of years.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *