Korean nationality nonglewu 朝鲜族农乐舞

时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间舞蹈
Category: Folk Dance
地区:辽宁,吉林
Region: Liaoning Province, Jilin Province
编号:Ⅲ-24
Ref. No.: Ⅲ-24
"农乐舞"俗称"农乐",流传于吉林、黑龙江、辽宁等朝鲜族聚居区。其历史可追溯到古朝鲜时代春播秋收时的祭天仪式中的"踩地神"。"农乐舞"是一种融音乐、舞蹈、演唱为一体综合性的民族民间艺术。创始于农业劳作,并具有古代祭祀成分的朝鲜族代表性民间传统活动"农乐舞",一般有两种形式,一种是以舞蹈和哑剧形式进行情节性的演出;而另一种,是在新年伊始和欢庆丰收时节,以热烈而丰富的传统舞蹈为内容所进行的群众性表演活动。"农乐舞"的表演共包括十二部分。有青年男子表演的"小鼓舞",舞童表演的"叠罗汉",多人表演的传统"扁鼓舞",男女都可表演的"长鼓舞",多人持大型花扇表演的源于古代"巫舞"的"扇舞",假形舞蹈"鹤舞",以及最后压阵的男子"象帽舞"。象帽舞向来是令人瞩目和兴奋激动的舞蹈,男青年舞者头部甩动长达20米彩带的高难技巧,令人目不暇接,成为"农乐舞"最突出的标志之一。
Nonglewu (farmers’ dance), also called nongle, is popular among members of the Korean nationality in Jilin, Heilongjiang and Liaoning Provinces. It dates back to the time of ancient Korea when people offered traditional sacrifices to the God of Land to pay homage to nature at the time of sowing in spring and harvesting in autumn. Nonglewu is a comprehensive folk art of the Korean nationality that integrates music, dancing and singing. Originating from farming, it is a typical folk practice of the Korean nationality that had sacrificial elements in ancient times. Nonglewu has two kinds of performances: episodic performances in the form of dances and miming actions, and mass performances in the form of passionate and diversified traditional dances that are performed at the beginning of the New Year and during harvest celebrations. The performance consists of 12 parts, such as xiaoguwu (small drum dance) performed by young men, dieluohan (human pyramid) performed by kid dancers, traditional bianguwu (flat drum dance) performed by a group of dancers, changguwu (long drum dance) performed by women or men, shanwu (fan dance) which originated from wuwu (witch dance) and is performed on a large scale with many dancers holding fans, hewu (crane dance) which mimics cranes’ dancing, and xiangmaowu (spinning hat dance) which is performed last as the grand finale. The xiangmaowu (spinning hat dance) never fails to dazzle and excite audiences. Male dancers swing a 20-meter long tape tied to a hat with superb skill, making it so fast that the audience can hardly view the scene as a whole. The xiangmaowu is the most prominent symbol of nonglewu.
朝鲜族农乐舞·象帽舞
Korean nationality nonglewu (xiangmaowu)
申报地区或单位:吉林省延边朝鲜族自治州
Nominating unit[s]: Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Jilin Province
农乐舞演出时,各个村寨都派出自己浩荡的舞队,参加当地的庆典。舞队的最前方由令旗和一面写有"农业为天下之本"的农旗为先导,随后是一名在队首敲打小锣担任总指挥的男子。在他的带领下,手拿太平箫、喇叭及各种鼓类乐器的乐队和各种乔装人物组成舞队的仪仗部分。接下来是表演小鼓舞、扁鼓舞、长鼓舞、扇舞、鹤舞、象帽舞、面具舞及哑剧的演员队伍,参加人数不限。象帽舞是农乐舞中的一种重要形式,种类繁复,舞技多样,分"长象帽"、"中象帽"、"短象帽"、"线象帽"、"羽象帽"、"尾巴象帽"、"火花象帽"等种类。其甩象尾的技巧包括左右甩、前后立象尾,有单甩、有双甩、甚或三甩,有站立甩、蹲甩、跪甩、扑地甩等多种。象尾有几尺长的,亦有几丈长的。
Local communities send their own grand dancing teams to attend the local celebration and perform the nonglewu. The dancing team is led by a flag that carries "agriculture is the basis of the world". Right after the flag, the commander of the team plays a small gong. The honor guard of the dancing team then appears, with members holding Taepyeongso (a Korean traditional wind instrument), suona horns and drums. Members wear makeup in order to symbolize figures. After the honor guard, teams of xiaoguwu (small drum dance), bianguwu (flat drum dance), shanwu (fan dance), hewu (crane dance), xiangmaowu (spinning hat dance), mask dance and mimes perform. The teams are not restricted in terms of size.
The xiangmaowu (spinning hat dance) is important part of nonglewu, featuring diversified types and varied dancing skills. It can be classified into changxiangmao (spinning hat dance with long tapes), zhongxiangmao (spinning hat dance with medium tapes), duanxiangmao (spinning hat dance with short tapes), xianxiangmao (spinning hat dance with tape decoration), yuxiangmao (spinning hat dance with feather decoration), weibaxiangmao (spinning hat dance with tail-like decoration) and huohuaxiangmao (spinning hat dance with firefly decoration). The tape swinging skills include the left-right swing, front-back swing; swinging one tape, or two tapes, or even three tapes at the same time; and swinging the tape(s) when the dancer stands up, crouches down, kneels or throws himself on the ground. The tapes have different lengths, ranging from several chi (1/3 meter) to several zhang (3 1/3).
象帽舞是我国朝鲜族的代表性舞蹈,应当妥善地加以保护和利用。
The xiangmaowu (spinning hat dance) is of the representative dance of China’s Korean nationality. It has high cultural value and should be properly protected and promoted.
朝鲜族农乐舞·乞粒舞
Korean nationality nonglewu (qiliwu)
申报地区或单位:辽宁省本溪市
Nominating unit[s]: Benxi city, Liaoning Province
流传于辽宁省本溪市桓仁县的朝鲜族乞粒舞有悠久的历史,它源于祈求农业丰收的民俗活动,原是农乐舞的一种,随着时代发展,逐渐形成融自娱性和表演性为一体的舞蹈。
Korean nationality qiliwu, popular in Huanren County, Benxi City, Liaoning Province, has a long history. It originates from the folk practice of praying for a plentiful harvest. Qiliwu, originally a form of nonglewu, has gradually evolved into a dance that integrates both recreation and performance characteristics.
乞粒舞有着相对稳定的传统程式,但又不受传统程式的限制,表演者可以根据现场情绪起舞,整个舞蹈具有很强的即兴性。当表演者情绪高涨时,大家各显神通,男性晃动象帽,使顶端长缨飞旋,划出美丽的弧线;姑娘边敲击长鼓边快速旋转,以形体的动感和美感传情达意;老年的扮演者不仅注重舞之韵味,而且注重姿态,动作变化繁多,能通过即兴表演将心底的欢悦之情表达得淋漓尽致。乞粒舞参与人员多,影响广泛,是朝鲜族农民群体舞蹈的典型代表。
Qiliwu has traditional patterns that are relatively fixed, but the performance is not restricted by such patterns. Dancers can dance according to their emotions, and thus, the performance is highly improvisational. When dancers are in high spirits, they will do their best to move the audience. For example, male dancers swing the tapes attached to their hats to produce beautiful traces; and female dancers play long drums as they rotate rapidly. They convey their affection through their moving bodies and dance aesthetics. Veteran dancers focus not only on the charms of the dance, but also on their postures. Veteran dancers present numerous postures, and fully illustrate their happiness through their improvisational dance. Qiliwu, which is performed by many dancers, boasts a wide-reaching influence. It is a representative collective dance for the farmers of the Korean nationality.
乞粒舞主要在朝鲜族的重大节日或大型活动中演出,如作周(一周岁生日)、回甲(六十大寿)、回婚(结婚60周年纪念日)或婚礼、店铺开张、建造和修缮庙宇时,村里老人都会牵头,组织歌舞表演。乞粒舞多通过家族传承。
The dance is usually performed during important festivals or large events, such as one year-old birthday, 60 year-old birthday, 60th wedding anniversary, and wedding ceremonies, shop opening ceremonies, and temple constructions and restorations. The performance is initiated and organized by the elders of the village. Qiliwu is mainly passed on by the senior members of a community to the younger generation.
乞粒农乐舞,同用于祈神的"踩地神"农乐舞和用于自娱的农乐舞相比较,最为突出的特点是它具有鲜明的表演性,是供人观赏的农乐舞形态。其舞蹈形态复杂,动作洗练,技艺高超,因此在朝鲜族舞蹈中享有独特地位。但是,这种古老艺术由于受到现代文明的猛烈冲击和老艺人相继离世的影响,正面临着失传的危险,亟待抢救和保护。
Qili nonglewu, compared with nonglewu that is performed when offering a sacrifice to the God of Land and nonglewu which is performed for recreational purposes, is performed for the enjoyment of audiences. Qili nonglewu enjoys a special status among the dances of the Korean nationality due to its complicated postures, refined movements and difficult skills. However, this ancient art is in jeopardy of being lost due to the strong impact of modern civilization and the death of old artists. Rescue and protection efforts are urgently required.
相关传承人:
Inheritor(s):
金明春 金明焕 韩奎昇
Jin Mingchun, Jin Minghuan, Han Kuisheng

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