Miao Nationality Embroidery (Leishan Style, Huaxi Style and Jianhe Style) 苗绣(雷山苗绣、花溪苗绣、剑河苗绣)

时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间美术
Category: Folk Art
地区:贵州
Region: Guizhou Province
编号:Ⅶ-22
Ref. No.: VII-22
申报地区或单位:贵州省雷山县、贵阳市、剑河县
Nominating unit[s]:
Leishan county, Guizhou Province
Guiyang city, Guizhou Province
Jianhe county, Guizhou Province
苗绣是指苗族民间传承的刺绣技艺。流传在贵州省雷山县、贵阳市、剑河县等地的苗绣有着不同的形式与风格。
Miao nationality embroidery refers to an embroidery skill originally developed by and passed down in Miao folks. Miao nationality embroidery is popular in Leishan County, Guiyang City and Jianhe County of Guizhou Province, and all of these places have different forms and distinct styles.
贵州省苗族侗族自治州雷山县地处黔东南,是苗族的主要聚集地之一,全县苗族人口占总人口的83.6%。雷山苗族的服饰至今仍保留着原汁原味的传统风格,精美绝伦的刺绣技艺和璀璨夺目的银饰让人赞叹不已。雷山苗族服饰按结构和风格划分,主要有长裙、中裙、短裙、超短裙四种,也称西江型、也蒙型、公统型、大塘型。
Leishan County of the Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou Province is located in Southeast Guizhou and is one of the main settlements of the Miao people. Miao people account for 83.6% of the total population in Leishan County. Leishan Miao costumes still retain their traditional style with exquisite embroidery and dazzling silver ornaments, which remains impressive even today. Miao costumes can be classified by size or style into four categories, namely long skirts, medium-length skirts, short skirts and ultra-short skirts (also known as Xijiang type, Yemeng style, Gongtong style and Datang style).
雷山苗族服饰制作工艺独特,形制很有代表性,有些是雷山独有,有些他处亦有却主要分布在雷山县境内。与形制相关的刺绣工艺亦有其独特性,如双针锁绣、绉绣、辫绣、丝絮贴绣等,尽管别处也有,但就技巧而言,雷山苗绣更具特色,并技法多样。雷山苗族刺绣的图案在形制和造型方面,大量运用各种变形和夸张手法,并大胆使用多维立体造型和型中型的复合手段及比喻、暗喻、借喻、象征等的表达技巧,体现出别具民族风格的审美情趣。
Leishan Miao costumes have a unique production process and highly representative shapes. Some of them are worn exclusively in Leishan County, while others can also be found in other areas. Nevertheless, most of them are distributed within the Territory of Leishan County. The embroidery skills associated with the various shapes also have unique elements such as double-stitch locking embroidery, crepe embroidery, braid embroidery, sticking embroidery and so on. Although these skills can be found elsewher, Leishan Miao nationality embroidery has a great many features and diverse techniques in terms of skill. There is extensive use of deformed and exaggerating techniques in different shapes and styles of patterns. The combined approach of multidimensional shapes and pattern-in-pattern styles and the presentation skills of analogy, metaphor, metonymy, symbols, etc. have also boldly been used so as to embody the aesthetic taste of the Miao’s distinctive ethnic style.
贵阳市花溪苗族挑花技艺在贵州苗族刺绣技艺中具有一定的代表性。据史书记载:苗族先祖九黎部落原居黄河流域,由于在与外族争战中多次败北,逐渐西迁,部分支系进入今贵州境内,其中一个自称为"谋"(他族称之为"花苗")的支系定居在格洛格桑(今贵阳)。这个苗族支系原先主要用蜡染来装扮自身,后发现挑花色彩更丰富,表现力也更强,便开始在蜡染图案底纹上进行挑花,挑花渐从蜡染脱胎,形成独特的表现手法和艺术语言。常见的挑花图案有猪蹄杈、牛蹄杈、牛头、羊头、狗头、冰雪花、刺藜花、浮萍、荷花、稻穗、荞子花、铜鼓、灯笼、银杈、铜钱、太阳、青蛙、水爬虫、螃蟹、燕子、楼阁、田园、桥梁、河流、苗王印等。
The Huaxi Miao cross-stitch from Guiyang City is fairly typical among the Miao embroidery skills in Guizhou Province. According to historical records, the Jiuli tribe, the ancestors of the Miao people, originally settled in the areas along the Yellow River. However, they moved gradually to the west several times after having lost battles against other clans. Some of their branches went into the territory which is now today’s Guizhou Province. Among which, one branch called itself "Mou" (also referred to as "Huamiao" by other clans) and settled in Geluogesang (i.e. today’s Guiyang). This branch of the Miao Nationality originally mainly used batik for their dress ornamentation. Not until the time when they found they could create richer colors with the cross-stitch work did they start cross stitch on the shading of batik patterns. The cross-stitch work gradually transformed from batik into a unique style and artistic language. Popular cross-stitch patterns include pig’s footprint, calf’s footprint, cow’s head, sheep’s head, snowflake, thorn flower, duckweed, lotus flower, ear of rice, buckwheat flower, bronze drum, lantern, silver fork, copper coin, sun, frog, water reptile, crab, swallow, pavilion, countryside, bridge, river, Miao King’s imprinting, etc.
花溪苗族挑花技艺具有追念先祖、记录历史、表达爱情和美化自身等功用,同时又有很强的装饰性。用十字绣为基本针法,数纱而绣,不用底稿,反面挑正面看的特殊技法,使整件挑花作品显得更加美观精巧。花溪苗族挑花的艺术风格可分为早、中、晚三个时期,1900年以前为早期,这一时期挑花底布为自织青色麻布,色彩单纯雅致,以银色调为主,白色中点缀有小面积的彩色,构图严谨,图案有几何化、程式化的特征;1900年至1966年以前为中期,这一时期挑花底布仍多为青色麻布,也有少量青色土棉布,色彩热烈华丽,多以红色调为主,配以黄、绿、白等色丝线,构图较前期活泼,图案更加丰富;1967年以后为晚期,这一时期挑花底布色彩和质地都呈多样化趋势,增加了红、蓝、黄、白、黑等色机织布,甚至使用塑料窗纱和粗麻袋布做底布,挑绣用的彩线除了蚕丝线又增加了十字线和毛线,构图更加自由,图案更加多样化,有的艺人还开始摹仿现代织物上的写实图案制作挑花。
Huaxi Miao cross-stitch skill is often used by Miao people for commemorating ancestors, recording history, expressing love and embellishing themselves, and has a strong decorative nature. based on the cross stitch, the special technique of back-front stitching with several yarns and no drafts makes the entire cross-stitch work look more beautiful and elaborate. The evolution of Huaxi Miao cross-stitch artistic style can be divided into early, middle and later periods. The early period refers to the time prior to 1900, during which the base fabric of the cross stitch was hand-woven blue linen. The color was simple yet elegant and gave priority to a silver tone with a small colored area laid in the middle of the white. The composition was rigorous, and the patterns were characterized by geometrization and stylization. The middle period refers to the period between 1900 and 1966 when most base fabrics of the cross stitch remained as the blue linen and very few of them were blue cotton cloth. The colors were warm and magnificent and gave priority to a red tone accompanied by yellow, green, and white silk yarns. The composition looked livelier than that of the early period, and the patterns were more imaginative. The later period refers to the time after 1967, during which both the color and texture of cross-stitch base fabric showed a trend of diversification, wher red, blue, yellow, white, black and other colors were added into the process of cloth weaving, even plastic window gauze and coarse sack cloth were used as the base fabric, cross yarns and woolen yarns were used together with silk yarns for cross stitch. The compositions were in a freer style, the pattern looked more diversified, and some artists started imitating realistic patterns on modern fabrics when doing their cross-stitch work.
由于苗族没有文字,花溪苗族挑花成了本民族历史和传说的载体,独特的挑花贯首服也成为这支苗族的识别标记和象征。挑花在花溪苗族的日常生活、节日庆典及择偶、婚丧、宗教等仪式中得到广泛的运用,有着很强的实用价值。花溪苗族妇女在制作挑花时,不但注重继承本民族的艺术传统,而且还善于发挥想象力,大胆地进行再创作,几乎找不到两幅完全雷同的作品,使得挑花有着较强的艺术性和独创性,广大美术家和收藏家对之极为珍爱,国内外博物馆也多有收藏。
Since the Miao Nationality has no writing system, Huaxi Miao cross stitch has become a carrier of their history and legends. The unique cross-stitched Guanshou gown (gowns made by cutting a hole for head in entire pieces of cloth) has also become an identifying mark and symbol of the Miao Nationality. Huaxi Miao cross stitch is widely used by Miao people in their daily life, during festival celebrations and spouse selecion, weddings and funerals, as well as in religious ceremonies, and hence has a high practical value. When doing the cross-stitch work, Huaxi Miao women always lay a stress on inheriting the nation’s artistic tradition, and they are also good at giving play to their imagination. They always boldly innovate, regardless of how many pieces they make, and two identical works can hardly be found. This provides cross stitch with high artistic quality and originality. A great number of artists and collectors are fond of cross stitch, and the works of cross stitch are collected in many museums both at home and abroad.
剑河县苗族锡绣主要分布于贵州省剑河县境内的南寨、敏洞、观么等乡镇,已流传了五六百年。苗族锡绣以藏青色棉织布为载体,先用棉纺线在布上按传统图案穿线挑花,然后将金属锡丝条绣缀于图案中,再用黑、红、蓝、绿四色蚕丝线在图案空隙处绣成彩色的花朵。银白色的锡丝绣在藏青色布料上,对比鲜明,明亮耀眼,光泽度好,质感强烈,使布料看上去酷似银质,与银帽、银耳环、银项圈、银锁链、银手镯相配,极其华丽高贵。锡绣工艺独特,手工精细,图案清晰,做工复杂,用料特殊,具有极高的鉴赏和收藏价值。苗族锡绣与其他民族刺绣的不同之处在于,它不是用蚕丝线而是用金属锡丝条在藏青棉布挑花图案上刺绣而成,其核心图案犹如一座迷宫,变化莫测,耐人寻味,寓意深刻,充满强烈的神秘意味。
Miao Tin embroidery of Jianhe County is mainly practiced in Nanzhai, Mindong, Guanme and other towns within the territory of Jianhe County of Guizhou Province, and it has been passed down from generation to generation for five to six hundred years. Miao Tin embroidery uses navy blue cotton fabric as its base, and its production process is as follows: first threading the cotton yarns and cross stitching on the fabric; then stitching and embroidering the tin wires into the pattern; after that, using black, red, blue and green silk yarns to embroider colorful flowers in the gaps of the pattern. Silvery white tin wires embroidered on the navy blue fabric form a sharp contrast. It looks bright and dazzling and has good gloss and strong sense of texture, making the fabric look exactly like silver. It looks even more beautiful and magnificent when accompanied with silver caps, silver earrings, silver necklace, silver chains and silver bracelets. Tin embroidery, with a unique process, is a very fine handiwork, and has clear patterns and sophisticated workmanship. It uses special materials and is very valuable in terms of appreciation and collection. The difference between Miao Tin embroidery and the embroideries of other ethnic groups is that Miao Tin embroidery uses tin wires rather than silk yarns to embroider on the cross-stitch patterns of navy blue cotton fabric. In addition, its core pattern is like a maze, which is unpredictable and interesting, has profound meaning, and is full of mystery.
但是,随着人们审美观念和趣味的不断变化,民族服装的市场越来越小,苗族青年人中,穿着本民族服装的人越来越少。在此情势下,苗绣艺人的数量日渐减少,可以说,现代文化越是发达,苗绣的传统技艺流失也越快。面对苗绣技艺所遭遇的危机,应尽快采取措施予以解决,以保证这一古老的民族工艺顺利传承下去。
As people’s aesthetic standards and tastes are constantly changing, however, folk costumes are becoming increasingly uncommon. Nowadays, there are a decreasing number of Miao young people wearing Miao costumes. As such, Miao nationality embroidery artisans have become fewer and fewer. It can be concluded that the more developed the modern culture, the faster will the traditional skill of Miao nationality embroidery be lost. In face of the crisis that Miao nationality embroidery skill has encountered, immediate measures must be taken so as to ensure this ancient craft can be successfully passed on to future generations.

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