Miao nationality lushengwu 苗族芦笙舞

时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间舞蹈
Category: Folk Dance
地区:贵州
Region: Guizhou Province
编号:Ⅲ-23
Ref. No.: III-23
芦笙舞,又名“踩芦笙”、“踩歌堂”等,因用芦笙为舞蹈伴奏和自吹自舞而得名。它流布于贵州、广西、湖南、云南等地的苗、侗、布依、水、仡佬、壮、瑶等民族聚居区,是南方少数民族最喜爱、分布最广泛的一种民间舞蹈。从已出土的西汉铜芦笙乐舞俑分析,芦笙舞至少已有两千多年的历史。芦笙舞大多在年节、集会、庆贺等喜庆时刻表演,主要有自娱、竞技、礼仪三种类型。
The Lushengwu, also known by names including cailusheng and caigetang, ect, derives its name from the lusheng, an instrument used by the dancers in accompaniment to the dance. It is the most popular and most widely distributed folk dance among southern ethnic minorities and can be seen in areas with Miao, Dong, Buyi, Shui, Gelo, Zhuang, Yao and other ethnic minorities across Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Yunnan and other regions. Analysis of unearthed Western Han Dynasty lusheng music and dance figurines has proven Lushengwu’s over two thousand years of history. Lushengwu is usually performed at New Year festivals, gatherings, celebrations, and other festive occasions. Lushengwu can be divided into three types: those for entertainment, for competition, and of ritual.
芦笙舞•锦鸡舞
Lushengwu-jinji wu (golden pheasant dance)
申报地区或单位:贵州省丹寨县
Nominating Unit[s]: Danzhai County, Guizhou Province
锦鸡舞发源于贵州省丹寨县排调镇境内,流传于苗族“嘎闹”支系中穿麻鸟型超短裙服饰的排调、也改、加配、党早、麻鸟、羊先、羊告、也都和雅灰乡境内雅灰、送陇等苗族村寨。传说这支苗族的祖先住在东方大平原上,后来迁到一个叫“展坳对社”的沙滩边居住,又因洪灾而沿江上行来到丹寨县。在丹寨县定居后,苗族的祖先们一边开田,一边打猎充饥度日。由于锦鸡帮助他们获得了小米种,帮助他们度过饥荒,所以锦鸡就成了他们的命运吉星。于是,他们仿照锦鸡的模样打扮自己,并模拟锦鸡的求偶步态跳起了芦笙舞。
The jinji wu originated in Paidiao Town in Danzhai County, Guizhou. It is popular in the Ganao branch of the Miao ethnic group among the people in the Miao villages of Yahui and Songlong etc in rural territories of Paidiao, Yegai, Jiapei, Dangzao, Maniao, Yangxian, Yanggao, Yedu and Yahui, wher they wear Maniao-style miniskirts. According to legends, the ancestors of this branch of the Miao ethnic group at early time lived on the great eastern plains, later moved to a place called Zhan’aoduishe by a beach, and yet again, due to flood disaster, moved upstream to Danzhai. After settling in Danzhai, the Miao ancestors began farming and hunting to survive. The golden pheasant (jinji), which played a part in allowing them to obtain millet seeds and avoid starvation, became a symbol of good fortune. As a result, they dress themselves in the image of a golden pheasant and imitate the courtship dance of the golden pheasant with the Lusheng.
锦鸡舞是苗族人民每十二年举行一次的祭祖活动中的主要的舞蹈形式。民间的婚庆、迎客礼仪和青年男女的“跳月”的过程中也常常表演锦鸡舞。锦鸡舞以芦笙伴奏,表演时女性个个绾发高耸,头上插戴锦鸡银饰,穿绣花超短百褶裙,戴全套银项圈手镯,脚穿翘尖绣花鞋,打扮得像美丽的锦鸡一样。男性吹芦笙作前导,女性随后起舞,排成一字形,沿着逆时针方向转圆圈跳。随着芦笙曲调的快慢节拍,妇女头上的锦鸡银饰跃跃欲飞,银角冠一点一摇,腿边花带一飘一闪,百褶裙脚边的洁白羽毛银浪翻飞,翩翩漫舞中舞者步履轻盈,酷似锦鸡在行乐觅食。舞蹈动作三、四、七步不等,以四步为主,兼以六步转身,腰、膝的自然摇动为舞蹈的基本特点。每跳一步,舞者双膝同时自然向前颤动,下肢动作多,上肢动作少,双手于两侧自然放开,悠然摇摆。人多时,芦笙手在中间围成圆圈吹跳,女性在外围成圆圈漫舞。民间锦鸡舞的芦笙曲调丰富,有乐曲一百多首,演奏起来轻快流畅,优美动听。
The jinji wu is the main dance form performed during the sacrificial ceremony once every 12 years. It is also often performed during folk wedding ceremonies, ceremonies welcoming guests, and “moon dances” for the youth. The lusheng accompanies the jinji wu, and the women, with towering red hair decorated with silver golden pheasant accessories, wear very short, pleated, embroidered skirts, full sets of silver necklaces and bracelets, and embroidered shoes with up-turned tips to look as beautiful as the golden pheasant. The men play the lusheng and lead; the women follow, dancing along in a circle counter-clockwise. Keeping pace with the tempo of the lusheng’s melody, the women’s silver golden pheasant hair accessories leap and flap as if they were eager to fly; silver angled crowns nod and shake. By their feet, ribbons flitter and glitter; the pure white feathers of the pleated skirts fly and flow, up and down, to and fro. They dance with grace, steps light, exactly like the golden pheasant in its work and play. Three-step, four-step, and seven-step movements are all parts of the dance, but it is mainly a four-step dance, with a six-step turn, which in addition to the natural rocking of the waist and knees, are the principal characteristics of the dance. Dancers’ knees naturally tremble with each step of the dance. The dance requires more movement of the legs than of the arms, and both hands naturally open, leisurely swaying. When many people are involved, the players of the lusheng dance play in the middle of a dancing circle of women. There are many lusheng tunes for the folk jinji wu—more than a hundred lively, fluid and beautiful melodies.
锦鸡舞表现了苗族人民温和娴静的性格,体现出人与自然和谐友好的精神状态,凸显着苗族人民古老而绚烂的美感追求,是民间舞蹈中一枝烂漫的山花。
The jinji wu, a brilliant wild flower among folk dances, is an expression of the Miao people’s gentle and refined character; their close, harmonious relationship with nature; and their ancient and magnificent pursuit of beauty.
芦笙舞•鼓龙鼓虎-长衫龙
Lushengwu • Gulongguhu-changshanlong
申报地区或单位:贵州省贵定县
Nominating Unit[s]: Guiding County, Guizhou Province
鼓龙鼓虎-长衫龙苗语音为“打容打阻-阿冗”,是贵州苗岭山麓小花苗聚居区贵定县新埔乡谷撒村所独有的一种苗族芦笙舞蹈。它历史悠久,至今已有千年以上的历史。据明代熊大木所著的《大宋中兴史话》记载,宋代,黑蛮龙跟随岳飞抗金立功,被封为龙虎将军,后因岳飞父子风波亭遇害,他“痛哭几日绝食而死”。人们以鼓龙鼓虎-长衫龙的舞蹈纪念这位苗族英雄,并一代一代地流传下来。
The gulongguhu-changshanlong pronounces “Darongdazu—Arong” in the Miao language, is a form of Lushengwu with over a thousand years of history, unique to Gusa Village, Xinpu Township, Guiding County in the Miao ethnic minority area of Xiaohua at the foot of the Miaoling Mountains in Guizhou Province. According to records in the famous Ming Dynasty History of the Great Song Dynasty Restoration by Xiong Damu, during the Song Dynasty, Hei Manlong, ennobled as the Dragon &Tiger General, followed Yue Fei into the battle against Jin and made many contributions. After Yue Fei and his sons were killed in Fengbo Pavilion, Hei Manlong “grieved for days and died of refusing to eat.” Later people took the dance of gulongguhu-changshanlong, passed down through generations, to commemorate this Miao hero.
长衫龙这种苗族芦笙舞过去仅在丧葬和祭寨神仪式中表演,现在则每逢重大节日集会、婚嫁、立房、跳月等传统民族活动都要表演此舞,成为开展娱乐竞赛、增进情谊的重要活动方式。此舞用于丧葬时,于出殡队伍的最前列表演;用于祭寨神时,则于阳历二月初一这一天在杀牛祭祖踩场之际表演;用于立房时,往往在踩屋基时进行;用于跳月时,则多在正月初一至三十的“跳月场”活动中表演。长衫龙包括男子双人舞、四人舞和群舞等形式,整个舞蹈分为三节,第一节表示群龙出现,第二节表示龙腾虎跃,第三节表示群龙抢宝。舞者身着黑色大襟长衫,头插两根野鸡翎,顶龙面牛角图腾,戴髯口,拴红色银饰腰带,手执芦笙,自吹自跳,随着流畅的芦笙旋律作出“龙斗角”、“龙吐水”、“龙出洞”、“龙飞膀子”、“莲花”、“拜见”等动作。该舞伴奏乐器笙管粗长,声音低沉浑厚,音乐节奏鲜明,舞蹈动作与音乐紧密结合为一体,形成一种独具魅力的艺术形式。
In the past, this dance was only performed at funerary or sacrificial ceremonies. Today, it is performed during every major festival, weddings, building houses, moon dances, and other traditional ethnic occasions. The dance has become an important means of conducting recreational activities or competitions, and enhancing sentiments of friendship and unity. During funerary ceremonies, the dancers are ahead of the funeral procession; in sacrificial ceremonies, on the first day of the second month of the solar calendar, it is performed during the sacrifice to the ancestors by killing the cattle. For building houses, the dance is often used for trampling the foundation for the house. For the Moon Dance, it is performed during the “moon dance court” event from the first to the thirtieth day of the first month. The changshanlong (Long Gown Dragon) dance involves male duets, four-person dances and group dances. The dance is divided into three sections: in the first, a group of dragons appear; the second, there is a bustle of activity; and the third, the group of dragons loot a treasure. The dancers, dressed in a black traditional style gown, two pheasant feathers decorating each of their heads,a dragon-faced, horned totem placed on their heads,wearing artificial whiskers and a red belt with silver hardware,armed with a lusheng, play and dance. They follow the fluid melodies of the lusheng in various movements including “dragons fighting with horns”, “spitting dragon”, “dragon leaves the cave,” “flying dragon’s wings,” “lotus flower,” and “paying a formal visit” etc. The dance is accompanied by the deep, low sound of the lusheng’s thick, long pipe. The rhythmic melody and intimate bond between dance movement and music create a uniquely magical art form.
鼓龙鼓虎-长衫龙历史悠久,舞蹈形式独特,是一种具有人类学、社会学、民族学、民俗学研究价值的民间舞蹈。由于社会环境的改变,外来文化等多方面因素对苗寨多有影响和冲击,现只有一个寨子不足三十人会跳鼓龙鼓虎-长衫龙舞蹈,这一古老的民间艺术形式已处于严重的濒危状态,亟待保护。
The gulongguhu-changshanlong dance, with its long history and unique form, has special values for anthropology, sociology, ethnology, and folklore research. Due to the significant influence of changes in society, foreign cultures, and other various factors that impact on the Miao community, today, only less than 30 people in one village can dance the gulongguhu-changshanlong. This ancient folk art form is already seriously endangered and in urgent need of protection.

芦笙舞•滚山珠
Lushengwu . Gunshanzhu
申报地区或单位:贵州省纳雍县
Nominating Unit[s]: Nayong County, Guizhou Province
苗族芦笙舞滚山珠原名“地龙滚荆”,苗语叫“子落夺”。它流传在贵州省纳雍县猪场苗族彝族乡,是苗族人民世代相传的芦笙舞蹈之一。传说远古时期,苗族祖先大迁徙,途中道路坎坷,荆棘遍野,英勇的苗族青年们为了给父老乡亲们开辟一条通道,就用自己矫健的身躯从荆棘林中滚出一条路,人们为了纪念这些青年的功绩,就模仿他们用身躯滚倒荆棘的动作,编成芦笙舞,取名“地龙滚荆”。
The Miao Lushengwu-Gunshanzhu dance, originally called “Earth Dragon Rolling over Brambles,” and “Zi Luo Duo” in the Miao language, is practiced in the Yi and Miao rural territory Zhuchang in Nayong, Guizhou. It is one of the Lushengwu dances passed down through generations in the Miao ethnic group. According to legend, during the great migration of Miao ancestors in ancient times, the roads were rough and covered in brambles. The brave Miao youth rolled their strong and robust bodies through the forest of brambles, smoothing out a road for their elderly relatives. To commemorate the achievement of these youth, the Lushenwu dance was compiled, called as "Earth Dragon Rolling over Brambles”, imitating the youth using their bodies to roll brambles flat.
“滚山珠”是集芦笙吹奏、舞蹈表演、杂技艺术为一体的苗族民间舞。表演时用6支长约20厘米的铁制梭镖头,镖尖向上插入地下,围成一个直径约0.7米的圆圈,或用6只对顶的饭碗装满水摆成圆圈代替梭镖亦可。表演者手执芦笙,一边吹奏,一边跳跃,围着棱镖或水碗翻滚,表演的技巧性强,且异常惊险。“滚山珠”在长期的发展过程中逐渐融进各种技巧,不断完善。到1989年,芦笙舞“滚山珠”由以往的单人表演发展成为6至8人同时表演的舞蹈。表演者手执六管芦笙,头戴箐鸡翎帽,身着绣花白褂,吹奏着世代传承的芦笙舞曲,围绕梭镖或盛满水的碗进行舞蹈表演,时而以头为足,芦笙舞步与技巧运用难度随表演进程不断增加,表现苗族同胞在迁徙途中不畏艰险、勇往直前、排出万难的惊险场面。
Gunshanzhu is a Miao folk dance integrating the playing of the lusheng, dancing, and acrobatics. During performance, six iron spearheads about 20cm long are pushed into the ground, tips pointing up, in the shape of a circle about 0.7 meters in diameter. The spearheads may also be substituted with six water-filled rice bowls, each on a bowl placed on the ground upside down. Performers play the lusheng while leaping,and roll around the spearheads or bowls of water. This dance requires a great amount of skill, and is exceptionally thrilling. Over its long process of development, Gunshanzhu has gradually assimilated a variety of techniques and continues to improve. By 1989, Gunshanzhu dance had evolved from a one-man performance into a performance involving six to eight dancers performing simultaneously. Armed with the lusheng, hats decorated with the feathers of a golden pheasant, and embroidered white gowns, performers play Lusheng melodies that have been passed down through generations and dance around the spearheads or water-filled bowls; sometimes, they even stand upside down. Throughout the performance, the Lusheng dance steps and techniques become increasingly difficult, reflecting the courageous and perseverance of Miao ancestors when facing the dangerous, difficult adventure of their migration.
苗族芦笙舞“滚山珠”以其粗犷豪放的风格、高难惊险的动作和深厚的文化内涵而成为少数民族民间艺术中的一枝奇葩,流播广远,享誉中外。它曾先后多次参加国内外的艺术节,受到中外人士和各族同胞的高度赞赏。这个舞种中蕴涵着的坚韧顽强、不屈不挠的民族性格是一份宝贵的精神财富,它激励和引导人们不断前进,永不为困难所压倒。
The Miao Lushengwu, Gunshanzhu, with its bold style, difficult and breathtaking movements, and rich cultural connotation, has become a singularly exceptional work of ethnic minority folk art, of far-reaching influence, and renowned around the world. It has repeatedly appeared in domestic and international art festivals, and received high praise from people of all nationalities in China and other countries. This dance form and its reflection of a tenacious, indomitable ethnic character is a priceless spiritual treasure. It inspires and guides the advancement of humanity, extolling the undefeatable spirit.
相关传承人:
Inheritor(s):
李金英 余贵周 王景才
Li Jinying, Yu Guizhou, and Wang Jingcai

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