The Initials and Simple Finals in Modem Chinese│现代汉语的声母和单韵母


The Initials and Simple Finals in Modem Chinese


The phonetic unit of modern Chinese is a syllable, which is composed of an initial, a final and a tone .

1.声母 The biitials


The consonant that begins a syllable is called an initial and there are 21 of them in modern

Chinese (the international Phonetic Alphabet in the brackets):

b [p] p [p‘] m [m] f [f]
d [t] t [t‘] n [n] l [l]
z [ts] c [ts‘] s [s]
zh [t] ch [t‘] sh[ ] r[ ]
j [t] q [t‘] x [ ]
g [k] k [k‘] h [x]


开头没有辅音的音节叫零声母音节,例如:(啊)ōu (欧)。

Syllables without initials are called syllables with zero initials, g .(啊)andōu (欧)

2 .单韵母 Single Finals



The element after the initial in a Chinese syllable is the final .

The final with only one vowel is called a simple final and there are six of them:

a [a]  o [o]  e [ ]  i [i]  u [u]  ü [y]


练习  Exercises

1 .读下面的声母:Read the following initials:

b P m f
d t n l
z c s
zh ch sh r
j q x
g k h


2.读下面的韵母:Read the following finals:

a e, e a
a o, o a
e o, o e
i u, u i
i ü, ü i
u ü, ü u


3 .读下面的音节:Read the following syllables:

bo po mo fo
de te ne le
ge ke he

4 .分辨下面各组的发音:Contrast the sounds of the initios in each of following groups:

z c s
j q x
z c s
zh ch sh
j q x
zh ch sh


  • .拼读下表: Read the followingtable:
a o e i u ü
b ba bo bi bu
p Pa po pi pu
m ma mo mi mu
f fa fo fu
d da de di du
t ta te ti tu
n na ne ni nu
l la le li lu
g ga ge gu
k ka ke ku
h ha he hu
j ji ju
q qi qu
x xi xu
z za ze zu
c ca ce cu
s sa se su
zh zha zhe zhu
ch cha che chu
sh sha she shu
r re ru

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