Xianziwu 弦子舞

时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间舞蹈
Category: Folk Dance
地区:四川,西藏
Region: Sichuan Province, Tibetan Autonomous Region
编号:Ⅲ-19
Ref. No.: Ⅲ-19
弦子,又称"谐"、"叶"、"巴叶",是藏族特有的一种胡琴,一般由男子演奏。弦子舞,也常称为"弦子",是在乐器弦子的伴奏下,集歌、舞、乐为一体的综合性藏族歌舞艺术。弦子舞分布于西藏东部及云南、四川、青海等藏族聚居区。表演时由男子拉弦子,女子舞彩袖,随着弦子节奏的变化,歌声舞姿变化多样。弦子的歌词大部分为迎宾、相会、赞美、情意、辞别、祝愿的内容;曲调繁多,歌词丰富,舞步多变。舞蹈时男女舞队各围成半圈,时而聚圆,时而疏散,且歌且舞;男子舞姿重在舞靴、跺脚,显示豪放粗犷之美;女子突出长袖轻柔舒展之美。
Xianzi, also called "xie", "ye", or "baye" is a kind of huqin (a family of bowed string instruments). It is a unique musical instrument of the Tibetan nationality that is usually played by men. Xianziwu, also called the xianzi, is a comprehensive song-dance art of the Tibetan nationality, which is accompanied by the xianzi, and integrates singing, dancing and music. Xianziwu is popular in eastern Tibet, and the Tibetan-inhabited areas in Yunnan, Sichuan and Qinghai Province. During the performance, men play the xianzi, and women dance by swinging their colorful sleeves. The songs and dancers’ postures change according to the rhythm of the xianzi. The song lyrics of the xianzi mainly relate to welcomes, meetings, acclaim, courtship, farewells and wishes. Xianzi has numerous melodies, diversified song lyrics and varied dance steps. During the performance, both the male team and the female team will form a semi-circle respectively. They sing and dance and form a complete circle, or dance separately at various intervals. Male dancers highlight their dancing boots and focus on stamping their feet to display their bold and unconstrained character; while female dancers highlight their long sleeves to display their gentle and smooth postures.
弦子舞·芒康弦子舞
Xianziwu (Mangkang xianziwu)
申报地区或单位:西藏自治区
Nominating unit[s]: Tibetan Autonomous Region
芒康县位于西藏东南部,藏、川、滇三省交界处,弦子舞是该地区的一种民间歌舞,它以弦子为伴奏乐器,男女聚集在一起,随着音乐翩翩起舞歌唱。芒康弦子舞在藏语中又叫"蕃谐羌","蕃"藏语为藏族,"谐"为歌舞,"羌"为跳。弦子称为"比旺",是一种当地老百姓自己发明的二胡,在史书中称为"胡琴"。昌都芒康县弦子舞历史悠久,据考证,唐朝时期芒康就已有弦子舞出现。
Mangkang County is located in the southeast of Tibet, at the border of Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces. Xianziwu is a folk dance in Mangkang area. During the performance, both men and women dance and sing accompanied by xianzi. Mangkang xianziwu is called "fan xie wu" in the Tibetan dialect. In Tibetan, Fan means Tibetan nationality; xie means song-dance; and wu means the action of dance. Xianzi is called biwang in Tibetan. It is a two-stringed bowed musical instrument which was invented by the local people, and is known as the huqin in historical records. Xianziwu in Mangkang County, Changdu Region has a long history. Research shows that xianziwu began as early as the Tang Dynasty (618-907).
弦子舞是芒康当地惟一特有的民族歌舞。每当节日,人们相聚一处,跟在一位或几位边拉琴伴奏边频频起舞的男子身后,甩动长袖蹁跹起舞。芒康弦子舞姿圆活、狂放而流畅,有拖步、点步转身、晃袖、叉腰颤步等动作,以长袖飘飞最有特色。舞者随着弦子乐曲晃动而发出阵阵"颤声",舞蹈动作相应产生"颤法",这些动作多以模拟一些善良、吉祥的动物姿态动作为形体特征,有"孔雀吸水"、"兔子欢奔"等类别。现存芒康弦子有不少各具地域特色的流派,如端庄稳重的盐井弦子舞、潇洒飘逸的徐中弦子舞、动作难度较大而轻松舒展的索多西弦子舞、自由开放的曲邓弦子舞等。在清晰婉转的琴声下,弦子舞队无论是聚拢散开、列队绕行,还是扬袖旋转,都体现出丰富的文化意蕴和审美内容。
Xianziwu is a unique folk song-dance in Mangkang area. In festivals, one or several men play the xianzi while they dance, and other people dance after them by moving their sleeves. In the Mangkang xianziwu performance, the movements and postures are flexible, forceful and smooth; and include shuffle steps, point-steps and turns, sleeves shaking, and arms akimbo and flutter steps. The swinging long sleeves are the most striking feature. Dancers produce quavers as the music quaver, and engage in fluttering movements. Dancers make such movements by imitating the postures of certain animals that are regarded as kindhearted and auspicious, such as the "peacock drinking water", and the "rabbit running happily". With respect to the existing Mangkang xianziwu, there are several schools with local features. For example, Yanjing xianziwu is calm and dignified, Xuzhong xianziwu is natural and unrestrained, Suoduoxi xianziwu features difficult postures and conveys tenderness and smoothness, and Qudeng xianziwu is unrestrained and flexible. With the accompaniment of clear and sweet melodies, the dance reflects rich cultural connotations and aesthetics, no matter if the dancers are gathering together, making a round, or rotating when swinging their sleeves.
如今芒康弦子舞已经成为广大藏族群众重要的娱乐方式,芒康十六个乡(镇)每逢佳节,都要开展以弦子舞为主的丰富多彩的文艺活动,这些活动丰富和活跃了群众的精神文化生活,提高了群众的文化素质,增强了他们对祖国和家乡的热爱。芒康弦子舞历史悠久,古老神奇,形式独特,民族气质强烈,高原特色浓郁,流派较多,表演体系完整,其歌舞传统弥足珍贵。
Nowadays, the Mangkang xianziwu is an important means of entertainment for Tibetans. In the 16 townships/towns, colorful art activities (mainly xianziwu) are organized during festivals. Such activities diversify and enrich people’s cultural life, enhance the cultural literacy of local people and give people new appreciation for their hometown and country. Mangkang xianziwu, an ancient and attractive form of art, has a long history, unique forms, numerous schools, and a complete system of performances. The performance features the strong characteristics of the Tibetan nationality and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The traditional songs and dances of xianziwu are of incredible value.
弦子舞·巴塘弦子舞
Xianziwu (Batang xianziwu)
申报地区或单位:四川省巴塘县
Nominating unit[s]: Batang County, Sichuan Province
"弦子"藏语称"嘎谐",又称为"谐"、"叶"、"巴叶"等,意为圆圈舞,属藏族三大舞种之一。它流行于西藏东部及云南、四川、青海藏族聚居区,以四川巴塘弦子最为有名。巴塘县地处川滇藏三省(区)结合部,这里古代属白狼国地,白狼国的"白狼歌"是一种诗、乐、舞一体的礼仪歌舞,巴塘弦子为其后世遗风。经千余年的发展,成为藏族人民十分喜爱的一种民间歌舞。
Xianzi, also called "gaxie", "xie", "ye", or "baye" in Tibetan, means a circle dance. It is one of the three major dances of the Tibetan nationality, which is popular in eastern Tibet, and the Tibetan-inhabited areas in Yunnan, Sichuan and Qinghai province. The xianziwu in Batang County, Sichuan Province is the most famous. Batang County is located at the adjoining section of the Sichuan Province, Yunnan Province and Tibetan Autonomous Region, and once belonged to the Bailang (white wolf) State in ancient times. The bailangge (song of the white wolf) is a ritual song-dance in Bailang State that integrates poetry, music and dance. Batang xianzi has some features of bailangge, and through its hundreds of years of development, it has become a folk song-dance which has been enjoyed by countless Tibetans.
巴塘弦子是一种优美抒情的藏族舞蹈,具有"长袖善舞"的特点,表演时,由数名男性持拉弦乐器"毕旺"(胡琴)在队前演奏领舞。其余舞者则和他们一起边歌边舞。
The Batang xianzi is a beautiful dance of the Tibetan nationality that expresses dancers’ emotions. The dance, featuring swinging long sleeves, is led by several males who play biwang (huqin), a bow instrument. Other dancers then dance and sing after them.
"三步一撩、一步一靠"是巴塘弦子舞的基本律动特点,其含胸、颤膝及长袖的绕、托、撩、盖等动作形成了不同一般的地域舞蹈特色。 每逢喜庆佳节,集会野营、劳动之余,人们聚集在"林卡"(林中空地)或坝子跳起弦子舞,男女不拘,人数不限。弦子音乐一般分前奏、间奏、尾声三部分,音乐柔中有刚,优美抒情,节奏富于舞蹈性。
The basic rhythm of the dance is "holding up after three steps, and leaning after one step". Such postures as the head down on chest, fluttering knees, and circling, holding up, raising and covering of long sleeves are special features of the xianziwu, distinguishing it from other dances. People (regardless of gender or number) gather in linka (a vacant lot in the forest) or on flat ground to perform the xianziwu during festivals, celebrations, gatherings, camping or simply after work. Normally, xianzi music consists of three parts, namely the prelude, interlude and postlude. The music, beautiful and lyrical, reflects both strength and grace, and highlights the rhythm of dance.
巴塘弦子是巴塘人民智慧的结晶。巴塘弦子舞中积淀着厚重的民族文化,折射着浓郁的民族风情,其学术价值和艺术价值都很高。2000年5月,文化部正式命名巴塘县为"中国民间艺术之乡"。有着几千首曲目的巴塘弦子成为了藏族民间音乐的最大宝藏,它是保存最完好的藏族音乐的"活化石",其音乐和唱词已经渗透到了藏族其他各种文学艺术当中,保护巴塘弦子对于保护藏族歌舞艺术、研究藏族文化都具有十分重大的意义。
Batang xianzi is the essence of the wisdom of the Batang people. Batang xianziwu embodies the profound culture of Tibet, reflects strong flavors of the Tibetan nationality, and is of high academic and artistic value. Because of this, Batang County was formally honored by the Ministry of Culture as the "Home of Chinese Folk Arts" in May 2000. The several thousand existing songs of the Batang xianzi are the greatest treasure of Tibetan folk music. Batang xianzi is the best preserved living fossil of Tibetan music. The music and the song lyrics of the Batang xianzi have penetrated into other forms of literature and arts of the Tibetan nationality. In this sense, the protection of Batang xianzi is of great significance for the protection of Tibetan dancing and singing arts, as well as the study of Tibetan culture.
相关传承人:
Inheritor(s):
次仁旺堆 江措
Ciren Wangdui and Jiang Cuo

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