Yingge Dance英歌

时间:2006年
Time: 2006
类别:民间舞蹈
Category: Folk Dance
地区:广东
Region: Guangdong Province
编号:Ⅲ-8
Ref. No.: III-8
英歌,又称“鹰歌”、“鹦哥”、“唱英歌”或“秧歌”,是一种融舞蹈、南拳套路、戏曲演技于一体的民间广场舞蹈,表演气势豪壮,气氛浓烈,流传于广东、福建等地,由男子表演,有歌颂英雄的含义。相传已有三百多年的历史,来源多解释为当地民众尚武习俗的变体或搬演《水浒传》故事。英歌一般在逢年过节期间演出,舞者多为双数,少则12人,多至108人,每人手执一对彩色木棒,配合锣鼓点和吆喝,挥动双棒交错翻转叩击,边走边舞;演出分为“前棚”和“后棚”两段,前棚为锣鼓乐演奏和英歌舞;后棚为各具特色的小戏和拿手节目。英歌舞的基本动作是舞棒,舞时每人各执两根圆形短木棒(直径10厘米,长20厘米),双脚成骑马蹲裆步,提腿向横跃动,双手随锣鼓节奏上下左右对击木棒,头和身体随之自然晃动。英歌节奏有慢板、中板、快板三类;有时套路多达20套,有“洗街”、“拜年”、“布年”、“背槌”、“过胯”、“抱槌勾脚”等。英歌舞具有鲜明的阳刚英武之气,舞至高潮,呐喊与螺号声响彻四方,气势磅礴,震撼人心。
Yingge Dance, also known as “Eagle Dance,” “Parrot Dance,” “Sung Dance of Heroes,” or “Yangge,” is a folk square dance combining dance, Nanquan martial arts routine, and traditional opera acting. Its Performances, popular in areas including Guangdong and Fujian Provinces, are full of grand momentum and intensity. It is performed by men and has a tradition of praising heroes. It is said that Yingge Dance has a history of over 300 years, and its origins are usually traced back to a variation on the local people’s martial arts customs or to performances of the Outlaws of the Marsh stories. Usually performed during festivals, the dance usually involves an even number of dancers, from at least 12 dancers up to as many as 108 ones. Each dancer wields a pair of colored wooden sticks in coordination with drumbeats and cries, waving, crossing, flipping, and tapping the sticks, while walking. Performances are divided into two parts; the former part is “the major part” and the latter part is “the minor part”. The Major part involves the drum performance and the actual Yingge dance; the latter part involves a variety of distinctive opera plays and specialty programs. During the dance, each person wields a pair of short, rounded wooden sticks (diameter: 10cm, length: 20cm) with both feet in a “horse riding posture,” and then lifts his legs to leap horizontally, with both of his hands wielding the sticks, upwards and downwards, left and right, in coordination with the drumbeats, and his head and body naturally swaying along. The rhythms of the Yingge Dance have three tempos: slow, moderate, or fast. Sometimes, there are as many as 20 sets of routines, including “washing the street,” “greeting the new year,” “bunian,” “carrying the stick", “passing through between legs,” and “holding the stick; hooking the foot” etc. Yingge Dance is full of a distinctive masculine and heroic atmosphere. As the dance reaches its climax, and cries and trumpets fill the air, a great momentum is let loose and it is very thrilling.
英歌•普宁英歌
Yingge Dance-Puning Yingge Dance
申报地区或单位:广东省揭阳市
Nominating Unit[s]: Jieyang City, Guangdong Province
英歌是普宁民间广为流传的一种民间舞蹈样式,迄今也有三百多年的历史,它被认为是扬正压邪、吉祥平安的象征,深受群众喜爱和推崇,具有广泛的群众基础和社会基础。
Yingge Dance is a popular form of folk dance among the people of Puning. To date, it has a more than 300-year history, and is considered a symbol of a positive evil-repelling force and good fortune. It is very popular and admired, with a broad mass and social foundation.
普宁英歌是一种壮美阳刚的汉族男性群体舞蹈,主要表现梁山泊英雄攻打大名府的豪情斗志和英雄气概。表演队伍人数少则24人、36人,多则72人,最多可达108人。表演者勾画风格独特的脸谱,按梁山泊英雄形象造型,着武士服,紧身短打,手执特制双短棒叩击起舞,并配以锣鼓、螺号节奏。表演时队列图形变化丰富,有“双龙出海”、“猛虎下山”、“麦穗花”、“田螺圈”等样式,动作套式亦五花八门,有“布田”、“洗街”、“旋槌”、“槌花”等形态各异的舞姿动态,形成特有的动律,场面恢宏,气势磅礴。普宁英歌表演风格威猛、雄浑、粗犷、豪迈,体现了中华民族果敢、坚强、团结战斗、勇往直前的可贵品格和精神风貌。
Puning Yingge Dance is a magnificent, masculine group dance of the Han nationality. It mainly displays lofty and heroic sentiments and fighting spirits of the heroes in Liangshanpo in their attack on the Daming Mansion. Performers can number 24 or 36 people at least, as many as 72, or at most 108 people. Distinctive facial makeup, made based on the heroic images of Lianghanpo, wearing the clothing of warriors, tight-fitting jackets and trousers, and armed with two special short sticks, dancers tap in dance along with the rhythm of cries and drumbeats and conch calls. During the performance, the dancers’ formation goes through a wealth of variations, including “two dragons going out to sea,” “the fierce tiger descending the mountain”, “ears of wheat”, and “the spiral shape of the field snail” etc. A great variety of dance routines, such as “butian” , “washing the street", “spinning sticks” and "waving sticks with patterns" etc., make performances dynamic, grand, and magnificent. The performance style of Puning Yingge Dance is fierce, wild, heroic, and full of power, reflecting the daring, strong, and courageous character and spirit of the Chinese people and their strong sense of solidarity.
普宁英歌突出的精神价值、社会价值、艺术价值得到有关专家的重视,获得“北有安塞腰鼓,南有普宁英歌”的美誉,普宁也被评为“广东省民族民间艺术之乡”。
The exceptional spiritual, social, and artistic values of Puning Yingge Dance have attracted the attention of specialists and gained it a reputation immortalized in the saying “the north has the Ansai Waist-Drum Dance; the south has Puning Yingge Dance”. Puning has also been named the “Home of Guangdong ethnic and folk art.”
目前由于农村经济发展不平衡,传承人老化等原因,普宁英歌队伍青黄不接,逐渐萎缩,出现濒危状况,亟待抢救保护。
Currently, due to the uneven economic development in rural areas and the aging of inheritors of this art, Puning Yingge Dance is suffering from a succession gap, with its performer team slowly shrinking. This folk dance is on the edge of extinction and in urgent need of protection.
英歌•潮阳英歌
Yingge Dance-Chaoyang Yingge Dance
申报地区或单位:广东省汕头市
Nominating Unit[s]: Shantou City, Guangdong Province
潮阳英歌是汉族民间广场舞蹈和傩文化形态的延续,在延续中有一定变化,至明代吸收北方大鼓子秧歌,逐渐演化为英歌舞,成为潮阳地区一种具有独特表现形式的民间舞蹈艺术。潮阳英歌集戏剧、舞蹈、武术于一体,极具阳刚之气。它在实践中形成一些不同的流派风格,按舞蹈节奏的板式划分,大致可分为慢板英歌、中板英歌和快板英歌三种。
Chaoyang Yingge Dance is a Han nationality square dance and a continuation of nuo culture, an ancient culture to drive out demons and repel evils. In this continuation of nuo culture, changes have always taken place. During the Ming Dynasty, it was influenced by the northern Drum Yangge, and gradually evolved into the Yingge Dance, finally becoming the Chaoyang region’s folk dance art with a unique form of expression. Chaoyang Yingge Dance, a combination of drama, dance, and martial arts, is extremely masculine. In practice, it has formed various styles differed by rhythm. Generally speaking, there are the slow, moderate, and fast Yingge Dance.
慢板英歌节奏较慢,所用舞棒比其他流派长,其基本舞法是三下槌或四下槌构成一组动作,慢中见势,势中显气,凝重古朴而又舒展优美。此外,还有“醉槌”英歌,舞时舞者形似醉汉,别具神韵。慢板英歌主要流传于文光、棉北、城南一带。
Slow Yingge Dance has a relatively slow rhythm and the dancing sticks used are longer than those of the other styles. Basic dance involves waving the dance sticks three times or four times composing of a set of actions. Intensity lies in its slow rhythm, and power lies in its intensity. It shows imposing simplicity as well as beauty and grace. There is also “drunken stick” Yingge Dance, wher the dancers act like drunkards, displaying a distinctive grace. Slow Yingge Dance is mainly popular in Wenguang, Mianbei, and Chengnan.
中板英歌节奏较之慢板英歌略快,基本舞法有打五棒、七棒(英歌舞)构成一组动作的,也有打八棒、十棒、十一棒、十三棒构成一组动作的。其锣鼓点与慢板英歌有明显的不同,前者鼓点中间有停顿和拉长,后者则是连续敲点。中板英歌主要也流传于文光、棉北、城南一带,其特点是于稳健中见潇洒,古朴中现圆活。
The rhythm of moderate Yingge Dance is slightly faster than slow Yingge Dance. Its basic dance involves beating five or seven times with dance sticks (Yingge Dance) composing of a set of actions respectively. Sometimes, it involves beating eight, ten, eleven or thirteen times with dancing sticks composing of a set of actions respectively. The drumbeats in moderate Yingge Dance are drastically different from those in slow Yingge Dance. The former contains pauses and stretches between drumbeats while the latter remains continuous. Moderate Yingge Dance is also mainly popular in Wenguang, Mianbei, and Chengnan. Its special features are revealing pizazz in the midst of steadiness, and sophistication in simplicity.
快板英歌的节奏快,鼓点紧,并随着队伍的阵势开合而多生变化,所用的英歌槌较短,运槌灵便。快板英歌一般分为对打套式、南山文派和南山武派三类。
Fast Yingge Dance has a rapid tempo with rapid, clear drumbeats, following the opening and closing of ranks in various changes of formation. The dancing stick is fairly short, making it easy to wield. Fast Yingge Dance is generally divided into three forms: the “sparring sets,” “Nanshan gentle school,” and the “Nanshan martial school” forms.
至今潮阳英歌仍在广泛流传和不断发展,主要传承人有洪飞鹰、郭耀扬、陈汉隆、姚欣塔、杨卫、周修兴、陈坤利、林阿饱等。潮阳英歌分布面广,辐射力强,几乎每个镇(街道)都有英歌队,有些镇甚至同时拥有几支不同风格或不同年龄结构的英歌队伍。1996年11月,潮阳被文化部命名为“中国民间艺术之乡”。
Today, performance of Chaoyang Yingge Dance is still widespread and growing. The main inheritors of this dance include Hong Feiying, Guo Yaoyang, Chen Hanlong, Yao Xinta, Yang Wei, Zhou Xiuxing, Chen Kunli, and Lin Abao etc. Strongly influential and widely distributed, almost every town (street) has a Yingge troupe; some towns even have several Yingge troupes of different styles and age structures. In November 1996, the Ministry of Culture named Chaoyang the “home of Chinese folk art.”
随着经济和社会的急剧变迁,文化生态发生剧烈的变化,潮阳英歌已失去往日的光彩,濒临断代失传的危险,亟待抢救保护。
Rapid economic and social changes have led to dramatic changes in the cultural environment, and as a result, Chaoyang Yingge Dance has lost its former glory. It is on the verge of being lost and in urgent need of protection.
相关传承人:
Inheritor(s):
陈来发 杨卫
Chen Laifa and Yang Wei

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